Groundwater Exploration

KLMCS are experts in ground water location and the development of water supply.  Over 37 years our principal has developed medium and large scale aquifers for use in water supply.  Kym was part of the team that discovered the extent of the Kalahari aquifers and developed the ground water supply for the Debswana mines in Botswana.  These aquifers have been supplying water at over 12 Mm3/yr for over 35 years.

Other water supplies have been developed for mines in Sub Saharan Africa and the host rock ranges from complex dolomite to very difficult fractured rock aquifers.  Dr Morton is the leading expert on deep aquifers below 300m.

Most of the Earth’s freshwater resources are stored underground as groundwater (96%). The regional distribution, varies and depends on climatic conditions as well as the geology of the subsurface. In contrast to many raw materials, a great amount of the groundwater is recharged in the hydrological cycle by infiltrating precipitation.

A detailed knowledge on groundwater resources enables its sustainable use, and the regional distribution of resources, the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer as well as the regional and temporal variations of the water quality are important factors. Knowledge of the recharge, the natural runoff and groundwater abstraction rates are critical for sustainable groundwater management.

The data required for a resource assessment are obtained by hydrogeological exploration, observations and measurements at boreholes and wells, geophysical investigations on the earth’s surface, airborne geophysical surveys, satellite image analysis and meteorological observations. Relevant geophysical methods such as geoelectrics, transient electromagnetics and airborne electromagnetics are applied for groundwater exploration. The surface nuclear magnetic resonance method and the seismo-electric method area are also available. Atomic dielectric resonance (ADR) has been used in Southern Africa with excellent result.

Databases combined with GIS methods are used to store and display the data. The data evaluation, being digital and increasingly three-dimensional, comprises all stages of conceptual to numerical modelling.

KLMCS also cooperates with developing countries in tasks jointly executed with geological surveys. KLMCS advises institutes in foreign countries and domestic institutes on the application of groundwater exploration methods, trains foreign partners and develops user-oriented methods.

The exploration is twinned with the management of the aquifers using state of the art monitoring, telemetry and dashboard management techniques.

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